You can access your dashboard from the navbar, on any blog. At the far left of each navbar, the Blogger "B" links to your dashboard. For any blog that you are not an administrator (and thus don't have a "Customize" link), you'll have a "Dashboard" link instead. Or you can start from "www.blogger.com", in the address window of your browser.
If you're not logged in to a Blogger (Google) account, that's what you do first. If you're logged in, you go straight to the dashboard. How you log in to Blogger affects what you see on your dashboard.
I have administrative access to this blog, "The Real Blogger Status", so I have buttons / links to
- Create a new post.
- Edit existing posts in the blog.
- Change key settings in the blog.
- Change the Layout (or the Template) of the blog.
- View the blog, or verify the URL of the blog.
- View a list of the Following community for the blog.
- View and / or moderate any unmoderated comments for the blog.
For any blog that I am not an administrator, my display will be slightly different.
At the bottom of the dashboard, you'll find an assortment of useful (and possibly not safe) links. Under "Tools and Resources", you'll find a link "Webmaster Tools". Right now, I would avoid this link, until Blogger explains some odd circumstances, which have recently damaged a few blogs. Manual verification of individual blogs seems safer, right now.